"The Samoyed" ©




Originally Published through the JULIET T. GOODRICH Memorial Fund in the 1960's


THE SAMOYED-


The Samoyed people, a dark-skinned semi-nomadic tribe, living along the shores of the Arctic Ocean into an immense stretch of tundras from the White Sea to the Yenisei River are a remnant of one of the earliest tribes of Central Asia. There is evidence that they migrated to the Arctic with their dogs at least one thousand years before the Christian era. They have been known to explorers for many centuries as mild, kindly people, manifesting extraordinary love for their beautiful dogs, which they treat as members of the family, sharing their table and bed which has given the Samoyed dog an unusual background of human association. No Samoyed tribesman ever strikes a dog; he trains by voice alone. These people developed a love and understanding of humankind and an unfailing sense of trust and loyalty in their dogs which remains a part of their character today. They lived by hunting and fishing. Existence depended upon their dogs who herded reindeer, fought off wolves, hunte! d the bear, guarded their belongings, shared their beds, and kept their children warm. The dogs were excellent fishermen and were used at times for towing boats and sledges when it was impossible to use the reindeer, generally the draught animal. Nansen (1893-94) was one of the first to use the Samoyed as a draught animal. He spent some time with the Samoyed tribe during his expedition to the North Pole. The natives lived in huts called "chooms", deerskin being used as tents, clothing, blankets and beds. They were a short, stocky people, the man standing about 5' tall, the woman shorter. They were strictly honest and kindly, though they managed their lifetime without a bath.

The qualities of intelligence and endurance led to the use of Samoyed dogs as transport by most of the important European expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic. Samoyed teams have made glorious history with Borchgrevink, Amundsen, and Shackleton in the Antarctic and with Nansen and Abruzzi in the Arctic. The American explorers Fiala and Baldwin also used Samoyed teams. Nansen's story of his Farthest North with Samoyeds on the first Fram expedition is an epic of dog valor that rings through the whole history of man's adventures at the ends of the earth.

One has only to read of the hardships these valiant dogs endured, worn and exhausted they were killed one by one to feed the others, they would not touch the meat and later in desperation it fed their masters. Feet torn and bleeding, they never flinched and worked until all their strength was gone. Only the hardiest and fittest could withstand the cruelty of the bleak frozen lands; only a few returned. Most of the Samoyed strains in England and the United States are related to veteran sledge dogs of these expeditions.

Antarctic Buck was often stated as being the very first Samoyed dog to be imported into England. An article from "The Queen"- the Lady's Newspaper of England, May 15, 1909, proves otherwise as follows. "The breed was first introduced into England by Mr. Kilbourn Scott, a member of the Royal Zoological Society, in 1889- his first dog being bought from a tribe of Samoyeds in Archangel province in northwest Russia and he gave the present name of Samoyed to the breed- (pronounced with the accent on "SAM".) Unquote. This dog was named Sabarka and as their first dog generated interest in the breed. With more importation, the famous Farningham Kennels was founded. Many explorers obtained stock from here for further expeditions. Later, Mr. Scott imported a magnificent dog, one of the pack used by the explorer Borchgrevink, born on the Southern Cross on the way to the Antarctic.

Again, quoted: "He stands 21-1/2 or 22 inches tall and is measured 35 inches long from the tip of his nose to the tip of his tail. He has the fine, open forehead, great ruff on neck, spreading tail and hair around the toes which are so characteristic of the breed. His fur is snowy white all over with a gloss on the hair which is peculiar to the breed. (Ed. note: this is what we term silvertip on the coat.) He is a most lovable dog and before being brought to England, he was shown to Jack London, (who wrote so charmingly about Arctic dogs and their characteristics) who declared that Buck was one of the finest Arctic dogs he had seen. So typical a Samoyed is a great accession to the breed."

The first official standard for the breed was adopted in England in 1909. Although Sams arrived in America before this date, it was not until 1906 that the first Sam was registered with the American Kennel Club and appeared at shows. Very few of our present day Samoyeds were bred from these early AKC registered dogs, but from dogs imported prior to and immediately following World War I from large, well-established kennels in England. The original Samoyed Club of America was organized and chartered February 14, 1923 in the East. The first official American standard was adopted May 15, 1923.

Historical background is retained. As dogs were endowed with a fifth dimension where they in reflection reach back for generations and know the purpose for which they were intended, so the puppy you purchase today will know their part in life's scheme to protect, guide and herd, to love and be loved. Whether the subject is a reindeer or your wee child, be assured it will be guarded from danger with a love that knows no bounds.

OTHER DOGS OF THE NORTH-

The Samoyed is confused in some minds with the Eskimo Dogs of Labrador and Greenland, and the various breeds of Alaska. The Eskimo is larger than the Samoyed, weighing often 80 to 100 pounds and is seldom even half white. Gray, tan and black are the Eskimo colors as well as the Alaskan dogs. There are several white Siberian dogs somewhat similar in appearance to the Samoyed, but are rare outside their own country.

BEWARE OF FRAUD-

There is only one Samoyed breed, only one kind with a "true work dog build". The tiny specimens of dog sometimes sold to the unwary as toy or miniature Samoyeds are mongrels or Spitz dogs, and are not to be compared with the noble animal whose name they borrow. The Samoyed IS NOT RELATED TO ANY OTHER BREED. He stands alone. He always breeds true, always shows his characteristic traits of build and brain.

CHARACTERISTICS-

The Samoyed is alert, expressive, intelligent, full of action and displays affection for all mankind. Joy is shown by the sparkle in his eyes and the mouth curving upward at the corners forming the well known "Sammy Smile".

Their intelligence can be a challenge to the owner. Man in the past depended upon the Samoyed and it was the latter who made the decisions, worked independently of man for the survival of man. The dog was "on his own" to find the reindeer, gain their confidence, protect them from wolves and herd them back to human environment. They taught their young this independence and responsibility, instilling this great instinct of reasoning so strongly that it rules the minds of our breed today. Yet we expect this highly intelligent animal to give up his heritage, his independence and bow to our every wish or we call him stubborn, unmanageable, stupid. Why do so many owners have so many problems with their dogs while others have perfect harmony? The answer is in the handling, not by forceful demands, but an understanding of love and respect between them. He HAS a mind of his own, respect it and he will comply with love and patience. He can be the easiest of all breeds to train o! r the hardest to control, depending on how you handle the situation. Training MUST be given; a command once given MUST BE OBEYED. He WILL obey and keep his dignity if you have had close companionship and understanding of each other. Keep in mind your command can very well sound stupid to him. At this point while matching wits- meet the challenge, present your point as an enjoyable and intelligent command by expressing delight in sharing it, praise him highly when done, even though it was not just as you expected.

Being alert and full of action, the Samoyed should respond as a happy worker. His great love of mankind is your control of his independence. He is a jealous dog, he wants your attention, he will please you to get it.

The home life of the past reflects character today. He slept with his masters and the babies; the chooms were his home too, he was part of the family. Tie him, ignore him and you will have a problem dog to handle. Love him, gain his respect, take him with you for rides, let him share your home and life and you will build the character his breed possesses. Character cannot be built without close human relationship, either in a kennel, or at the end of a chain, but as the center of your attention, loved, respected and wanted. Your reward will be respect, protection, performance and love coupled with intelligence beyond belief.

The herding instinct is very strong. He will take off after a rabbit despite your command to stay. Accept him for what he is, he will need a fenced-in yard. If you want a dog who will stay on your porch, who will not stray, this is not your breed. If you are willing to give your time and love, you will receive the greatest treasure a dog lover could own, being owned by a Sammy.

SIZE-

The standard recommends males be 21" to 23-1/2" at the shoulder; bitches 19" to 21". There is no disqualification of size in this breed. Size varies from 17 inches to 25 inches though these extremes are usually sold as pets and seldom seen in the show ring. The majority of winning Sammies today are at the top of their standard size, rather than at the bottom.

PERSONALITY-

By nature he is not a quarrelsome dog though he will stand his ground for what he feels are his rights. Being an all purpose dog he will easily adapt himself to any circumstances or environment and when brought up with children, they will be his favorites as he excels as a playmate and guardian who will not desert his charges when they are in danger. Each Samoyed is an INDIVIDUAL, even from one litter. One will be very attentive and obedient while another may be more headstrong and less demanding of affection as long as he KNOWS the house is his castle when he wants it and he owns you.

Personalities can and are changed with circumstances and environment. The happy, outgoing puppy can end up dull, shy or aggressive through neglect or mistreatment during his first year. Lack of harmony in the home will upset him, he cannot be happy if you are upset. He should be taken for short drives as early as eight to ten weeks, meet strangers and adjust to strange surroundings as well as other dogs when he is three months and older. Care must be taken that he is always treated kindly. Never allow an aggressive animal near him until he is old enough to accept such a challenge and protect himself. He must not be deprived of human relationship which he needs. Never tie him outdoors alone. This will change his personality as he was born to be free. A fenced-in yard is a must where he can get his exercise, feel the freedom of open area, yet be protected from death by a car. He will want to herd the neighbor's cat, rabbits, squirrels or explore the area, as much as te! n miles of it.

He has a keen sense of knowing when you are happy, sad, who really loves him, just tolerates him, dislikes him and he will return his love accordingly. He thrives and his personality abounds with love and companionship in being part OF THE FAMILY, in the car as well as at home. There is no way of fully describing his understanding, intelligence, his value as a pet and/or show dog except to live very CLOSELY with one and experience the great treasure he becomes in your home.

He is a "talky" dog and with encouragement will voice his pleasures and his dislikes. Some enjoy jokes and ham it up when laughed at while others resent it. He will speak with his paw or nose. Many an owner can tell how a cup of coffee was almost bounced from their hands when they ignored his demand to be let outdoors. That nose will also be pressed softly under your arm for attention, pressure added when the first hints for recognition are ignored. They are naturals to "shake hands" as they are quick to offer a paw in friendliness, even when a small puppy. They use their feet cleverly to open doors, etc.

WOOL-

The Samoyed has a double coat, the undercoat being wool which when carded and spun can be woven or knitted into beautiful clothing. It is strong and warm. The coat is odorless, the outer coat is coarse, long and the tips have a silver glint. Both coats should STAND OUT from the body, a drooping coat is NOT typical of the breed. The color is white, cream, white with biscuit tipped ears and/or freckles. Most Sammies today are white though the colored are very valuable to the breed as they have a more stand off coat of coarser texture and their get have the beautiful silvertips which are lacking in some of the dogs today due to breeding away from color too long. Unusually black pigment is evident in the colored dogs.

The wool is NOT sheared, Samoyeds shed!! At this time it is combed out and saved. Always brush your Sammy before you bathe him as if he is starting to shed he will be a matted sight and a miserable job to comb out for you and painful to him. The bitches usually shed twice a year, dogs once, though they can have a slight shed midseason. Once the Samoyed has had a complete shed and the new coat starts to grow in, there is no hair problem as with shorthaired breeds. However, when they do shed, there is a lot of hair around. In some areas where humidity is high, there can be more shedding problems. In summer, when the woolly undercoat is shed, the coarse outer coat seems to act as protection against the sun. Puppies born in late Fall often shed in Winter instead of Spring so there is no standard time of shedding. Weather plays an important role. Nature provides that the young be born in Spring and in their homeland they have a definite pattern. Though odorless of doggy smell, the coat WILL pick up other offensive odors if allowed to get in contact with it. A soiled coat will have a musty odor when wet from the rain.

FEEDING-

The young Samoyed, in general, is not a hearty eater as most breeds his size. He must often be encouraged with meat juices or bacon grease mixed in the food to entice him to eat. If the condition of your puppy has been maintained through the first year, sound, NOT FAT, it will take much less food to retain this condition throughout his life. Nothing should be spared this first year as growth is rapid. He will gain from about one pound at birth to sixty pounds in this time, depending on size and bone structure. The care received at this time will set a pattern in eating, healthwise and moneywise for the rest of his life. The thin puppy, the nibbler, not getting a balanced diet often eats and eats later on and never puts on weight. EACH IS AN INDIVIDUAL and where one will maintain show condition on one cup of food, another will require three times as much.

NEVER allow an adult Sammy to become fat, cut the ration, reduce the fats. He will live much longer and be a healthier and happier dog. Feed a balanced diet, no table scraps except beef or chicken, SCRAPED from the bones. Keep in mind meals were few and far between in his native land, he survived without eating for many days. Guard against overfeeding the bitch when weaning the puppies. She will have a tendency to become overly fat, her appetite is keen, cut her rations at once or she will lose her shape and her health will suffer. DO supplement vitamins and minerals at this time. There is quite a difference in condition and fat.

Purchase your puppy or dog from a RELIABLE breeder and you will receive a complete feeding plan as well as advice throughout his life, often whether you request it or not. See that you have the foods on hand prior to picking him up. Take a large container for water along, ask that it be filled. Change of water can upset a puppy but by slowly mixing this with yours, he will adjust without problems.

See that fresh water is available at ALL times. Ice cubes are enjoyed in the hot months by adult dogs but NOT to puppies!

Special additives for coat are on the market, each breeder has his favorite, all are good. Suggestions are Gro-Kote, Mirra-Coat and Linatone. Feed only as stated. Overdosing can and DOES cause skin problems. They do promote a better coat with added sheen. Fish are a main diet in the Arctic and the oils are part of their diet.

HEALTH PROBLEMS-

The normal temperature of a dog lies between 101 and 102 degrees Fahrenheit, use a rectal thermometer. Given his necessary shots, yearly boosters, the Samoyed is a hardy dog and not prone to illness. Most causes are from incorrect diets and neglect. Long coated dogs are subject to hot spots and other skin diseases when not groomed and kept clean, from force feeding rich foods to promote excessive coat and not providing a cool place to sleep during the hot months. He seems not to suffer from heat if given a shady spot, he adjusts to any climate.

He can become infested with fleas, ticks, or worms if not kept clean and allowed to roam in affected areas. A fenced-in yard, mowed lawn and prompt removal of all feces will insure his health against these problems. Prevention is much easier than cure. In case of an illness, CONTACT A VETERINARIAN AT ONCE.

Do NOT give him bones, small ones will puncture his intestine, larger ones will wear down the teeth. Purchase rawbones which are edible protein and will give him the exercise he needs, clean his teeth and pacify his desire to chew.

Should your Samoyed shed constantly, have him checked by the veterinarian. Unless he has been exposed to sudden temperature changes, this is not normal. Anal gland problems will cause this as well as a health problem. Purchase the material listed at the back of this pamphlet for complete information and detail.

GROOMING AND CARE-

Too many new owners are being sold on Samoyeds being "easy" to keep clean, they never get dirty, never shed, never have odor and need never be bathed! This IS misrepresentation of the breed. Unless under close supervision they are NOT easy to keep clean; they DO shed, as much as a bushel in two combings; let them run through a barnyard and they will smell as offensive as one. A wet, soiled Sammy has the odor of a filthy wet, wool blanket; at this point come to the conclusion that they must be bathed after all.

A clean Samoyed is a picture of breathtaking beauty, a sparkling silver tipped coat as fresh and pure as the new fallen snow. The scent of your favorite doggy shampoo adds to this charm so even those who dislike dogs will reach to touch this striking animal and would welcome it in their home.

Soil begins right after bathing, the wet coat picking up soil much more than when dry. Keep him confined in a small clean area until dry. The coat can be kept quite clean for several weeks by washing the feet after each outdoor romp and rubbing the body down every day with a wet towel, drying briskly with a white Turkish towel; note the soil on towel.

Brushing helps to remove soil and your dog will look presentable with daily grooming. A lawn is cleaner than earth, digging to an extent requires a bath. The time to bathe depends upon your dog, his surroundings, training and you. Weather plays a very important role. A Winter of snowfalls bathes him for you, he will become cleaner as he rolls in each new snowfall. Frequent brushing will not keep the coat clean, it will keep the soil light for some time. However, sooner or later he will become dirty and a bath is necessary.

Bathing is a must prior to a dog show, there is no excuse for a dirty entry. Your pet should be bathed at least twice a year for his health and comfort. Bathe right after the wool has been combed out, this will remove loose dead hairs and clean the skin; this stimulates the growth of his new coat. Do use a GOOD DOG SHAMPOO which conditions both the skin and coat, NOT a cheap detergent which can and does dry and irritate the skin. Use lukewarm water.

Trim toenails every three weeks if necessary, do not cut into the quick. At this time trim the hair beneath the pads, level with the pads. This is very important as long hair will cause the dog to slip from poor footing. It will also cause him to go DOWN IN PASTERN as he will tend to walk on the heel pad rather than the toe pads as is normal.

Check teeth for discoloration which can be removed with a toothbrush and paste. Tartar should be removed by your veterinarian. Hard dog biscuits and rawhide bones will help prevent and remove it.

Urine stains the coat, bathing will not remove it unless done at once. The sun will BURN the harsh outer coat and it will appear a soiled brown color, especially over the back. Be sure your dog has AMPLE SHADE AT ALL TIMES!! Never place him where shade is not available, plan your fenced-in area by trees.

For detailed information on grooming, note books available on References page. The breeder should also advise you with helpful hints.

BAD HABITS-

Every breed has bad habits and the Samoyed is no exception. This is a working breed that enjoys action, herding and attention. They can easily become bored with nothing of interest at hand. They will dig, in fact they are excellent excavators by nature digging deep into the snow for protection against the bitter cold winds in their native land. Catching them in the act and speaking angrily while hauling them off to their sleeping quarters will let them know this is not appreciated. When they go near a spot, ask them in an angry tone, *Did you do that? Shame!!* Note how he will make a big circle around it and look the other way. Call him away, give him a toy or a rawhide chewbar to play with. It will not cure the habit but it will do wonders to discourage it and save you many a bath.

No breed can get more excited over squirrels hovering above them, leaping from tree to tree and bark they will. The remedy is to chase off the squirrels or call in the dogs until the teasers find other entertainment. They are excellent watchdogs but will not keep barking continually while your guests are present. They bark when company arrives, after they see who it is and receive recognition that they were heard, they will return to their own pleasures. It is not natural for them to keep barking unless they are tied, bored, teased or ignored. The very reason he is an ideal pet for your children makes him bark and bark when they run off with their friends and desert him. Call him in the house, give him attention, get his mind off that deserted idea. In a few minutes he will go out in the yard and be contented to wait for their return.

This is a highly intelligent breed, they DO think and have a keen sense of being loved or neglected. They are not a dumb dog content to lay around satisfied with what you care to hand out, THEY WILL DEMAND! The more intelligent the dog, the more things he will figure out to gain attention, good or bad. It takes a highly intelligent human to cope with some of them, animal wise. No two are alike. Environment makes the difference.

There are Samoyeds who have a propensity for foreign objects which lasts past puppyhood and must be tried and tested before you can make sure the house is safe when you are away. Many Sams can be given the full run of the house from the time they are puppies while others will be a problem as long as they live. Early training usually conforms the puppy into a well-mannered adult. Don't give the puppy a shoe to play with unless you don't mind when he chews up your good ones. Poison is NEVER placed where a child or animal can get to it. Never leave anything around that the puppy should not chew when you leave him alone. Bring him out when you are home, teach him what is his and what MUST be left alone. An untrained puppy can form bad habits which he will continue throughout his life, spoiling him as a trusted pal when adult.

The chewing of hair off the front legs, skirts and tail is from sheer boredom. A dog left alone for the day will often do this. A bitter spray is available in pet stores and advertised in dog magazines. The sooner you spray the area, the more apt you will be to break a future habit as this usually discourages it. Give him a rawbone to chew on, he needs something to pass the time.

Contact a reliable breeder. Beware of that REASONABLE PRICE, the wholesale pups of those not carefully linebred to quality stock. You will get just what you pay for. The service of a good stud is $100.00 and up. (ED. Note-1960's, remember..) The breeder must take the bitch to the stud, many expenses are involved. Both parents should be x-rayed clear of hip dysplasia, sound and a good representation of the breed. They should be complementary to each other for the betterment of the breed, not bred because the service is cheap or the stud close by. Beware of false advertising, the breeder should have PROOF of what he advertises. Don't be misled by blue ribbons, ask to see Winners and Best of Winners ribbons. If the dog is a Best In Show winner that huge ribbon should be on display. A Group winner is a Group FIRST award, not a second, third or fourth award. Considering the cost today, a $100.00 puppy is indeed a bargain. Do not be surprised if a price of $500.00 is quoted for a special well bred puppy from proven winners and producers which is a fine show prospect. If he fulfills your dream you will own a priceless animal and he will be worth three times that much.

A choice puppy is the choice of the litter and if you want a show and producing prospect this is the one you should get. Much consideration must be taken to study the pedigree, the dogs in the first four generations. If they are all fine specimens, you have a very good chance of coming up with a real winner. A litter can produce one Champion, all Champions or none. This is why the pedigree is important. However, a puppy from top quality stock is a pretty sure bet that the pups will carry far more quality and produce it than mediocre parents, the pets being as good as the choice from the latter. Often two pups stand out so second choice is also in demand for show prospects. There is no guarantee that the choice pup will be better than third choice when adult. The breeder, if experienced, can be very helpful knowing the faults to look for and recognizing quality. The care you give the pup can also make the difference. Listen to the breeder and heed their warnings on care of the young pup. Don't expect the puppy to be perfect. Every dog has a fault or lacks something. The top dogs are those who have the most quality and overall showmanship. The dog who has won top awards over all breeds in shows is not perfect.

Every purchaser is not interested in showing a dog. Quality pups are sold as pets though their price is higher, naturally. Sometimes a buyer wants such a dog as just a pet, the pride of owning a fine specimen of the breed. This animal could be used for breeding, it is not PET QUALITY. Don't purchase a pet quality bitch with intentions of breeding her later, she was sold as a pet for a valid reason. She will produce inferior stock and harm the breed.

Above all, be sure the puppy is guaranteed healthy at the time of sale, free from parasites, has the necessary shots against distemper, etc. Have it checked by your veterinarian at once, not a week later. Follow up with the permanent shots, booster shots each year and general checkups. He should be at least eight weeks old, he needs that contact with his kind to adjust him in getting along with other dogs when adult.

Are the puppies clean? If possible, visit the kennel a few times and note if cleanliness prevails. The dam should be clean though she may be going out of coat and looking pretty straggly. Small puppies should never be bathed but kept clean from the day of birth. Cleanliness is a habit and chances are you will have an easier Sammy to keep clean if he was trained thus.

The puppies should be happy and outgoing, not shy. Do not expect to pick up and handle the puppies unless the breeder suggests it and then listen to how a puppy should be picked up and handled. They are squirmy and if you are not used to handling them, you could drop and injure one. Ask what food the puppy receives and get a supply when you get the puppy or beforehand so he will not have a change of food. Be sure the dam has been receiving the proper vitamins and minerals to insure proper growth.

Have all dewclaws been removed? This is done at three to five days. A reliable breeder will see that this is done! These will catch and can tear in causing major surgery when older. The nails tend to curl and cut into the leg.

THE NEW HOME-

Keep your home as quiet as possible the first week of your puppy's arrival. Your home and family are enough adjustments and company should be asked to wait. Allow him plenty of time to sleep. Don't allow the children to play with him unless HE COMES TO THEM, he is a baby and may be too tired. He should not be fussed with after he eats. He should NOT be picked up by a child any more than your three month old baby. He is NOT A TOY! He is a living creature with feelings, a gift from God. Would you think it cute if he bit your child in the ear? Then why tolerate your child pulling his? If your child plays rough with him, he will soon return the rough play and when he grows up, don't blame him when this happens, you LET it happen. Train your child that he will learn GENTLENESS AND LOVE. This will be returned tenfold. Lest you forget, he wants to please and you express your wishes by the way your family handles him when he is young.

See that he is fed on time, make out a feeding schedule. He will housebreak faster and be healthier with this care. Don't ask a child to take over this responsibility, this is your responsibility, not theirs.

Don't allow a child to lead him on leash as a puppy, you leash train him, gently and lovingly, not by roughness; never drag him, coax him with kind words and he will respond.

If you are not more than willing to accept this puppy for his faults as well as his virtues, to keep him until death, leave him at the kennel. Someone worthy of him will soon pass by and he will have the home he was bred and raised for. He becomes devoted to his master, he does not adjust well passed from owner to owner and will long for you for years once he has become attached. Be certain that you will forever be worthy to be called his Master.

DEATH OF OWNER-

MAKE OUT A WILL AT ONCE! Your Samoyed is a much your responsibility as the rest of your family. Should disaster strike your home, know where he will be placed, fed and loved. Dogs have been known to starve when owners were suddenly killed, they were forgotten in the tragedy, nobody was informed to take over and see that they were fed and cared for. Make it known in writing who will receive your pet, see that a substantial sum is set aside for their care. See that this is in ready cash, they will need it!!

THE LIFE'S SPAN-

Puppies are born with short, white coats. Muzzles are blunt, ears lay flat against the head, the skin is pink. They weigh from 10 to 18 ounces. Smudges of charcoal color appear on the noses in three or four days.

Their eyes and ears open about the tenth day, weight has doubled. The charcoal is deepening to black and spreading on lips and eyerims.

The third week they are on their feet in a wobbly fashion, tails coming up over their backs for balance. Ears are folding over. Teeth appear with a vocal reaction of growling and barks. Play begins. Pigment is filling in, it is often apparent on the pads, especially the front feet. Weight about four pounds.

The fifth week is their most photogenic age, they are irresistible! Play is a major part of their day divided into eating and sleeping. Pulling tails, ears, biting a paw is a specialized game. Weight 6 pounds.

Two Weeks

Three Weeks

Five Weeks

 



The eighth to tenth week is the ideal age to enter their new homes. A great part of their life's mental adjustments is stabilized through association with their dam and littermates. Ears are or soon will be up. Pigment should be filled in at this age though breaks do take up to a year in some lines. Tails should be carried well over their backs when walking. Eyes will still be slatey blue in color but those who still have this color at twelve weeks tend to have a lighter brown eye. Biscuit shadings will disappear later unless the color is definite, especially on the ears. Weight at eight weeks about 10 pounds. Ten weeks approximately 15 pounds.

Four to six months is the awkward stage. Legs and ears are out of proportion in length, the coat is suddenly too short for the overlong body. The movement is something else and you will wonder if all of these extremes will ever balance together again. If he was a picture of balance and beauty at eight weeks, his sire and dam fine specimens well linebred, this puppy has a very good chance of becoming another Prince Charming.

Maturity depends upon his family line and size. This varies accordingly. The small Samoyeds tend to mature earlier. Some family lines mature as early as twelve months though the early maturers seldom hold their beauty and within three years are past their best. The general age of maturity is between two and one half to three years, even to four years. The slow developer will hold his beauty for many years and can compete with the best in the show ring at seven and eight years.

TYPES OF BREEDING-

INBREEDING: The mating of closely related animals. Only top quality, sound stock should be used. This doubles up genes, both good and bad. Two dogs of fine temperament and intelligence will produce high intelligence and excellent temperament. Shyness breeds fearful puppies not worthy as a pet. You can produce the best and the worst, depending upon the faults which are recessive in their pedigree. The seriousness of all faults must be evaluated in this pedigree before attempting this breeding.

LINEBREEDING: The safest and most satisfactory of breedings. Relatives names appear often through a six generation pedigree. The more closely in the first four generations, the better. True line breeding is keeping the relationship through first cousins as close as possible to one or two ancestors. It is only by breeding with dogs carrying the same genes that the essential qualities can be established and maintained.

OUTCROSSING: Breeding to unrelated blood. This practice is frowned upon unless the unrelated dog is a good linebred and the breeding is for a definite purpose to introduce a certain quality your line lacks. Be certain he possesses the true prepotency for this quality. A dog whose parents are unrelated is little more than chancebred, he has little to offer the breed and should not be used to reproduce.

The breeding of relatives does not produce vicious, unstable dogs unless the parents or grandparents were mentally unsound. This is an old wives tale. On the other hand one cannot guarantee temperament from an outcross as too many genes are involved.

RELIABLE BREEDER-

The word reliable begins with ethical breeding, not breeding a bitch too young, never at two consecutive heats. The studs are used only on quality bitches for the purpose of bettering the quality of the breed. The pedigrees of bitches and studs are studied carefully LONG before the breeding is to take place. The bitch is conditioned for this mating. A reliable breeder does not just drop in with their bitch *in heat* to a stud owner. The stud owner would not accept such a breeding. Quality breeding is NOT A HAPPENING! Both should be x-rayed and proved free of hip dysplasia. More bitches should be refused for breeding than accepted, many to be referred to another stud who will compliment her more. The reliable breeder does NOT feel their stud is the answer to every bitch owners prayer.

The reliable breeder is a GIVER to the breed, he loves the Samoyed and his concern is in the breed, not in making money. His expenses usually exceed twice the income. His reward is PRIDE in the quality he produces. Each breeding is well planned for a litter that will become a fine representation of the breed, whether sold as a pet or to show. His concern is proper placement of his puppies; prospective buyers are screened for their reason in choosing the Samoyed, if they can and will give it the proper care, attention and accept its bad habits, the shedding problems, etc., or would another breed fit this home better? He is not a pusher of puppy sales, the buyer must want this puppy very much. He would not resort to hauling young puppies to dog shows for sale reasons. He spends much time with his puppies, building character and security in relationship to humans. He will be honest, explaining the demands, care and handling of the breed to keep it presentable as a pet or show dog, a fine example of the breed. He will furnish you with breed information or help you to get it. You will hear from this breeder periodically. His dogs receive the best of care whether sold as a pet or show dog. Dewclaws are removed at three days. Cleanliness and health go together and are this breeders concern.

Don't rush out to buy a puppy, see them, talk it over with the family, this breeder will want it that way. You may have to place your name on a waiting list with a downpayment if you decide to own one to assure you of a choice of sex and/or show prospect from this breeder. Be assured in your mind that he is a reliable person to deal with, that you would like a puppy from his kennel.

REFERENCES- Samoyed Books

*The Complete Samoyed* by Bob and Dolly Ward, Howell Book House

*The Samoyed (New Zealand)* by Valerie Auckram and Pearl M. Wilson, Cliff Press Ltd.

*The Samoyed* by Keyte-Perry, Percy Brothers, Ltd., London

*The Samoyed* by The Samoyed Association of Great Britain, Battley Bros. Ltd. *How to Raise and Train a Samoyed* by Vera Kroman, T.F.H. Publications

*The Complete Dog Book* by The American Kennel Club

*Visualizations of the Dog Standards* by Popular Dogs Publishing Co., 2009 Ranstead St., Philadelphia, PA

*Rules on Dog Shows and Obedience Trials* by the American Kennel Club

*The New Knowledge of Dog Behavior* by Pfaffenberger, Howell Book House

*Dog Obedience Training* by Pearsal and Leedham, Charles Scribner's Sons

*Training You To Train Your Dog* by Saunders, Doubleday and Company

*Animal Genetics* by Hutt, Ronald Press Co.

*Canine Hip Dysplasia and How To Control IT* by Riser and Miller, Orthopedic Foundation for Animals

© Copyright (1997 by The Samoyed Club of America, Inc.)

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